Friday, September 30, 2016

博聞強記

博聞強


最羨慕博聞強記的人。博聞多學是我的理想。總希望自己能長期不斷的吸收廣泛的知識。何如知易行難,做到的遠不如想要的。長期學習倒不困難,我經常閱讀書籍雜誌,多少補充新知。難處在於拓廣知識領域。翻前覆後,自澔瀚百科中,始終選擇幾項固定的學科閲讀。因此把自己局限於小格局之內。文史藝術之外的學科,極少接觸。偶爾探索旁門異道,,也是淺嚐即止,談不上瞭解。事實上即使文藝範疇之內,涉獵也未必深廣。光是東亞文學,日本韓國都不熟,遑論東南亞印度諸國了。藝術也局限於傳統領域,二十世紀五十年代後的新興流派吸收有限

所以光博聞一項,我成績不合格。至於強記,就順其自然了。同事中有一人近乎天才腦筋。他自己發現有過目不忘的本能,而且是能映象式的將所視所聞用攝影方式儲存腦中。如有應用需求,自然而然由腦中浮現。他精通六七國語言。英法德俄,西班牙,韓文都行。中文也可以,令人驚歎。一回我提到黑人女高音 Lyontine Price 銓釋的 Aida 少人能及,這位同事立即順口唱出全段的詠嘆調, Pace pace, pace O Mio Dio. 唱完之後,還告訴我說是他二三十年前學的。不只義大利文一流,音樂素養也是一樣高明。更不題記憶力之強了

但此人是生活白痴。辦公桌堆積雜物如山,處理事物隨心所欲,並無條理。往往一事未完成,又另起一新項,結果五六件工作都有頭無尾。大概老天爺也是公平的,有得必有失。有一回他出車禍,開車撞到別人。結果才發覺自己汽車保險過期。等於沒有保險開車。結果駕駛執照被吊銷。從此坐公車上班。他該記得的沒記好

記憶力據報是可以訓練加強。我自己的記憶力如何,倒不是很清楚。反正記不得的就忘了吧!想記得的,多試幾次,難記的就會有點印象。歌曲遺忘中提到,若是不能遺忘,軀體載不起沈重憂傷。足見記憶好也未必全是好事。往事不堪回首,老掛惦著回不去陳年往事徒增煩惱而已
記英文單字我是超弱。時常刻意要強記新字,喃喃暗誦了無數次,結果往往不到五分鐘,擠盡腦汁仍然想不出來剛剛才查過字典的生字。數字上的記憶好像可以。不知道為什麼,我仍然記得小學時代家中的電話號碼。連仁愛初中時自己的學號也記得。加減乘除運算仍處精光狀態。甚至我懷疑數學細胞能夠遺傳。倆個女兒數學都很不錯。小女兒念天文物理,數學程度非我能及了

説到這裡,總而言之,我雖然羨慕記憶力強的人,但是並不挺在乎自己記憶力平平。上了年紀,多少有得健忘症可能。三天兩夜的,找車鑰匙,找老花眼鏡稀鬆平常,偶而更忘了吃高膽固醇藥物。只要不嚴重到找不到回家的路便無傷大雅。嚴重的話,聽説甚至會失智。一旦失智,拖累泰半為家人。當事者反而一無所知。據說阿爾默茲症還沒有療癒處方,祗有減緩病徵趨勢。希望我不用活到那一天


Friday, September 23, 2016

歷史角度, Historical point of view.

歷史角

同事之間交談之後,發覺有許多位拿過歷史系學士學位。之後才又進修圖書管理學碩士學位。雖然不到吃驚成度,多少有些意外。歷史學印象中是冷門科系,高中生畢業前以歷史科系為己業者,當為少數吧!臺灣十六年所接受的基礎教育,歷史學在印象中最深刻的印象是背誦年代,人名,和重大事迹。既使大學繼續俢了中國近代史,中國文學史,中國哲學史,真正史料史學名著僅識得作者,涉略不過遊俠列傳,五帝仲尼世書,僅司馬公史記長篇中的隻字片語耳。偶爾幾句成語,如前車之鑑,他山之石,提醒自己歷史是鑑往知來利器,讀史書最能開竅明心。可惜從未有幸了解歷史重大的影響和意義。不知道是自己一向後知後覺,亦或是所學歷史課程不夠深入,總之歷史對我來說,無非是陳年往事,從來未曾於反省歷史事物中學習到溫故知新的經驗

幸好我的後知後覺不等於不知不覺。年齒增輪,竟然也開了新竅。近一年多,工作上集中編訂藝術書籍,尤其針對繪畫,建築,和音樂三大項目,概括了極為寬廣的上下歷史,東西地理範圍。一方面邊作邊學,再者邊學邊作。慢慢地了解愈多愈深,竟也更悟出學然後知不足的道理。譬如一本專問評論某某建築師風格的新書,作者總是會多少介紹其個人師承,友懠,流派等資料。時而引述比照異國他鄉旁人作品,以為讀者參考。為了了解作者提供的額外資料,每次流覽一書,往往又得花費時間精神搜尋更多相關資訊。同樣的道理,整理圖書館不停購買的藝術新書時,了解到新知識不斷衍生,正是建立前輩累積的舊和識。忙碌中深切感受到要更忙才行。吸收新知是不可稍停的路途,也有一種難以言喻的滿足感

耳邊正在聆聽兩本電子書。一本剛結束,另一本正好補上。都是在上下班坐地鐵時收聽的。 The History of Western Art by Peter Whitfield 是一本以通史性質勾描西方藝術歷史沿革。上起至遠古石窟壁畫(法國,西班牙),下至二十世紀。地域則限制在埃及,兩河流域,以及歐美各國。大體上描寫藝術家如何反應時代思潮,展現美學和政治社會,宗教文史哲的融合與衝突。除了列舉各時代重要藝術型式特色,代表性藝術家,尤其分析不同時代的因循變遷,來龍去脈。聽完此書,彷彿將胸中一點一滴,從前所知零星常識化為一卷長軸,始未貫穿,左右旁通。方才認識為何羅馬帝國繼𠄘希臘文明,建築,雕塑鼎盛一時,然而教庭一統之後,西方淪為黑暗時代,直到義大利文藝復興時代,世人才又於人本主義中紓解心靈,將創造歸還於本心。藝術創作,美感舒展若是沒有自主權,便失去了光華。藝術家縱使會尋求出口,能在封閉的政治宗教環境下發光發熱,宣洩個人創造特質,然而以歷史廣角鏡頭觀察,越是廣納寛容的社會,文化成就相對強勢。所謂百家爭鳴,非亂世殊現象,也是太平盛世榮華景色。(岔開一下話題,作者十分譴責教會造成文明斷層,一切文藝歸結於歌頌神教。但是還要感激中古世紀僧侶們致力於保存早期文獻。不少精心打造的手抄本都是在偏遠道院中完成。
提到中古世紀黑暗時期最終結束,在我第二本有聲書,The Discoveries by Boorstin 中,正巧也提及歷史上深具關鍵的發明、發現,包括了科學,考古學,地理探險,社會丶宗教;囊括諸般有關人類文明題材。書中提到了中古世紀水陸絲路之活絡對東西文明經濟上非凡的貢獻。其中之一段相關元朝西征,打通中國,歐洲,以及處於兩大文明之間的伊斯蘭帝國樊籬,十分有趣。並添加馬可波羅東穿梭其中的軼情。實在是歷史上一段火花燦盛時代。(不提殺戮血戰事跡

Boorstin 所述,元朝初袓鐵木真,忽必烈等固以武略顯赫於世,實則才識過人,才得以縰橫東西。西洋人稱為 Tartar 蒙古大兵團將巴基斯坦伊拉克收至旗下后,直接接觸到基督帝國。教皇子民數百年不識阿拉真神風土人情。因為中東尹斯朗族群一向也是自我封閉,不與西方建立國際關係。未料元朝統理中亞地區期間,鼓勵商旅往來,族裔交融。巴格達市集學者會集,辯論宗教哲學,令東西正教信徒拆服欽敬吐舌稱奇。絲路通暢千里長;人類知識流蕩無礙。大汗喜收稅金
恭逢其時的是馬可波羅奇人。他出身商呂世家。自祖輩起已經通商各域,往來不同城市,進出貨物。馬可波羅父親,叔父在帶年青的馬可前往元朝大都之前,已經在西元 1261 -1269 年之間造訪中土疆域,深受忽必烈汗敬重。1271 年再訪東都,攜當時剛直母喪,年紀十七歲的馬可同行。忽必列再度觀察到馬可波羅少年生日成熟穩重,耳聰目明,博聞強記等特質,不止引為上賓,且責以重職。大膽借重義大利洋人跋山涉水之經歷,將其所見所聞記錄評估,成為元朝將帥及駝馬軍事行動及經濟擴展資料。所謂知己知彼,確實勝臨邦一籌

馬可波羅回義大利老家,己經四十一歲。他故鄉威尼斯,時直 地方邦城小國征戰頻傳,威尼斯和西北敵邦 Genoa 兵戎互見,威尼斯不敵,馬克被擄為階下囚。陰錯陽差,獄中有位小有名氣的通俗作家,比薩為其名。馬克於數月期間傾囊囗逑其遊歷始未。遂有後世所見馬克波羅遊記一書。可惜比薩此人,屬嘩眾取寵型通俗文學派,自己又喜加湯加料,成品不免遭學界質疑。事實上,此書資料仍然是歷史上少有的珍貴地歷風土記實。接下來數世紀受益匪淺。西方世界得以開眼反思,終究能在二百年後重新啟動希臘羅馬帝國之後的文藝復興盛世

歷史是上下四方之學。吾人眼光所見,確實有頭有源。當今社會現象,政治環境,也是前人一路走下。有新有變,有因有果。觀察時事,無妨多從歷史角度,鑑古照近,相信角度會較寛廣,評論會較公正。我循老夫子之教,信民可使由之一說,奉不可使知之一理。故而不識政治,但生性僻好文章藝事。無獨有偶,竟然也從認識藝術史上累積一些心得。歡欣之餘,又寫了一堆廢話分享。


Saturday, September 17, 2016

40's college reunion note


美國這一撮同學
我們這七個人,林燕,葉秀華,廖麗娥,黃梅雪,張繼雯,吳淑梅,和我徐伯達,是一群普通而又特殊的人。40多年來,我們都離鄉背井,辭根到美國尋夢。因緣際會,祗因為在雙連坡我們共同成長了四年,自此如瓜絲蔓藤,因季節年月分合纏連。十一年前,等一次盛大舉辦的30年畢業同學會,我們七個人無一缺席。從美國各州飛返中壢,與昔日同窗共聚。十一年後,我們七人,依舊無人缺席,又自東西兩岸之間,來到洛杉磯,共襄盛舉,又是完成心願,成功的參與四十多年來首次舉辦的美國同學會。
我們真是一群普通人,雖然家庭背景各異,思想觀念不同,事業際遇迴途,婚姻家居也各有個別經歷,但是我們也無非是人海中浮沈,撑舵尋覓航程的凡人。
我們也是一群與眾不同,深該驕傲的非凡之人。因為我們友誼如此深厚,情感如此豐沛。那一年仍舊天真的我們一齊捧著五公斤重的説文解字,漫行於橘紅泥土校園。踏偏宿舍和圖書館,聽著教授分析杜甫秋興八首,不知訓詁學為何物?。一種無形的力量將大家勾搭連結。即使此後如秋蓬風散,上下前後宇宙中,我們連牽攀附,在四次元,三度空間,地球平面,聚成一點。像志摩偶然一詩,你有你的,我有我們的方向。那交會時互放出燦爛的光芒,瞬間而永恆。我們何等不尋常?
我們是幸運的一群。但是我們絶不是航行平波靜浪。如同失根的蘭花,每個人在亞美利堅共和國載浮載沉。聆聽一段婚姻始末,養兒育女前後,在打趣揶揄中,有無比心酸。也有人在職場措折,在學習過程備嚐艱辛。有的創業艱苦,煎熬多年,甚至手術臺上開心動手術。
過了一甲子,大家都60開外。這次同學會,我們一起探討信仰追尋之路,思量生老病死,交換退休計劃。我們將心比心,在車上高歌輕唱,也在開往墨西哥的遊輪上狼吞虎嚥。大伙兒不經意地談著某位老師,某位同學,當年誰如何如何,如今又如此如彼。2016年的七月,大家再重新活過二十少年,1970 年代,在中壢的一段浪漫青春。我們輕唱鍾梅音的遺忘。明知回憶緊貼著痛苦,卻是無人選擇遺忘,寧願做個多情種子。
七月十二日晚上一場音樂會,我們和柴可夫斯基,郎郎一齊逍遙月下。在 Hollywood Bowl 醉聽一千零一夜辛巴達組曲。(Rimsky-Korsakov ) 指揮家 Dudamel 放下指揮棒,我們五天緊湊的聚會到了尾聲。
曲終人散了!離別總是思念的開始。我已經開始想念每一位同學,包括台灣每一位同窗。我以認識你們大家為榮。我們一定要趕緊為下一次聚會起草準備。See you all soon!

Note at the night of 40's college reunion, plus the note for the 30's reunion

Friday, September 16, 2016

My Professional Librarianship's philosophy

Introduction of my Professional Philosophy: Intellectual Freedom, Access, and Service 

 It is difficult to name one thing librarians do that does not involve ethical implications. Intellectual freedom certainly is the most commonly recognized philosophical belief for these ethics-based decisions. Interestingly enough, it is viewed as a core responsibility of librarianship and listed in article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, but a uniform definition of intellectual freedom is yet to be found. In responding to the ever-changing political and sociological environment, the American Library Association has revised the interpretations ofintellectual freedom seven times. As a concept in librarianship, intellectual freedom indicates the right of freedom of thought, conscience and religion, freedom of opinion and expression, freedom of information seeking, accessing, retrieving, and receiving, regardless of age, race, background or belief.  Free access of information is another central philosophical concept I fully embrace for librarianship. Information resources of different formats, or methods of delivery, should be readily and equally accessible in any library without the interruption of regulation and restriction, regardless of a user’s financial, political, and religious background. The library, as an institute of information, has the responsibility to support information access by supplying materials in subjects for a wide range of values, in multilingual materials for diverse communities, and in unfiltered Internet services for unobstructed research.  My concentration of librarianship is public library services. 

The essence of public library services is to serve the public. Unlike specialized libraries where services are limited to privileged groups, a public library, stealing Lincoln’s words, is the library of the people, by the people, and for the people. Special libraries such as the Royal Library of Alexandria in ancient Egypt only hosted distinguished international scholars of antiquity world; in modern time the Huntington Library in up-scale San Marino, California, welcomes doctorate-level researchers in the Humanities. But public library reserves no exclusiveness; it has a completely open and fair policy. No library has offered greater quantity and quality services to the bulk of the population than public libraries, for public library opens its door to each and every person in all walks of life. 

 ALA posts six core values for its Public Library Association. The main initiatives are: to be responsive to community needs, be open to new ideas, expand revenue for lifelong learning, and open the door to any individual who otherwise has no access to academic or research libraries. In addition, public libraries should be responsive to patrons’ education needs, information needs, and entertainment needs in person, by phone, and online. Public libraries also provide absolutely free services and programs to the general population regardless library users’ cultural, racial, and financial background. Public library services are the most democratic within the library profession. And I am proud to be one of these noble and yet humble professionals. Public libraries do not exclude.   

C. Theories and practices  Theoretically, public libraries offer unobstructed information access points for users, and advocate intellectual freedom. Public libraries are where people can pursue lifelong learning, and enjoy the cultural heritage of our society in the most democratic of surroundings. This is where individuals can seek assistance and find information for intellectual or financial growth. Nevertheless, in reality, the complexity of social, financial, and political changes hampers the application of advocacy into action. For instance, free access to libraries for minors is always problematic, as well as inadequate collections for minorities, and economic barriers of information access for the illiterate population. Development policies affecting access and acquisitions will impact librarians’ beliefs in intellectual freedom and service ethics, too. Censorship, confidentiality, copyrights, and governmental intimidation can all be barriers to practicing honest public librarianship. 

social, cultural and economic dimensions of information use
Image 
The need for information is inherent in human nature, and its use shapes human civilization. Information is power and recent history shows that it can be beneficial or harmful depending on how it is used. The manipulation of financial information contributed to the current economic crisis. The blockage of information by the governments of China and North Korea oppresses of those countries. Yet, the explosion of social networking on the World Wide Web has altered how many members of society connect to and communicate with each other, largely in a positive way.   Information use impacts society.Information has impacted human society in the past, it is impacting the world now, and it will continue to influence people in the future. 

Think about our country’s decennial census mandated by our Constitution. How important could it be that the project of collection of enumerated population started since when Thomas Jefferson was the Secretary of State in 1770 and will begin again next year. Why is it so important we need to know how many native Indians now live in a particular county of a particular state? Use of census information, together with many other information sources, impacts society in every way; it defines the allocation of federal funding for construction, it regulates the electoral votes, and it guides the direction of our future. Information truly influences society in every aspect and has multiple dimensional, socially, culturally, and financially. Information professionals, including librarians, work on the front lines of this dynamic environment of information.  My first evidentiary paper explains the economic impact of information on Pholoane, a rural village in South Africa. The citizens of Pholoane still carry on the oral tradition that has existed for generations. This village has no written language. When maize, its primary agricultural crop, was threatened due to lack of proper care, the village had to rely on modern information to ensure its survival.   A training program developed by the Lebowa Agricultural Corporation (LAC) helped solve the problem. The program succeeded because it involved the participants in their own training and addressed their unique way of using information. The trainers in the LAC program first tried to understand the way of life and values of the people of Pholoane by gathering oral information from members of the community. They then tried to teach them more modern farming techniques in a way that still respected the village’s unique traditions. This evidentiary filedemonstrates how information is passed along in an oral tradition and how modern information was successfully incorporated into that tradition for the benefit of an entire community.  My second evidentiary paper presents a case of how to a university library used its resources to benefit a community much closer to home. Authors Vlator, Goldsmith, and Fonseca, of Ellender Library at Nicholls State University in Louisiana, report how their academic library is trying to increase its patronage. Nationwide, commercialism has invaded libraries as more of them have introduced coffee shops. The authors argue that this essentially turns the library into a living room and detracts from its core mission of lifelong learning. Rather than serve lattes, Ellender Library started hosting events and exhibits that emphasize information use. The library offers dozens of these outreach programs each year, often combining the resources of the library, volunteers and other local institutions. The library has found that these events are highly anticipated by both students and local residents, who, after attending them, often become regular library users. In this way, the library has become the social and cultural home of the community. No coffee needed. Information is multi-faceted.   Information use is thus multi-dimensional. Earlier this year when Los Angeles Philharmonic announced 

Gustavo Dudamel as her new Music Director, Angelinos interpreted the information as the most exciting cultural event of the community. But soon, media read the news as a financial strategy to rescue the failing music industry. Some scholars refer the appointment of a wild, young, charismatic Venezuelan maestro as a symbol of social and demographic switch of metropolitan structure of Los Angeles. Library profession needs to understand the flexibility, possibility and ambiguity of information.   Information use also involves past information, present information and/or future information. My ideal future project in library environment will be a project using historical information and contemporary technology for the future generation. I would like to work with the Burbank Historical Society to digitize its archival collection. Each community has its own cultural heritage and digitization is one way to ensure the long-term preservation of the print and photographic materials that document it. Visiting the Burbank Historical Society’s photo collections at Gordon R. Howard Museum years ago, I was very impressed by the vast records of community’s social, cultural, and economic heritage. The photo galleries of early movie industry and aerospace industry were particularly striking. This project would use the technology of the present to preserve information from the past for future generations. I see this as my way of contributing to the social, cultural and economic heritage of the city I have been proud to serve. 

Proper planning is a key element to ensuring that a library service or program is effectively carried out. An architect’s blueprints are the design a contractor follows to build a new building and that a civil agency uses to monitor the progress. In a library, a plan is the blueprint administrators and staff use to develop, review, evaluate, and improve programs and services. But a clearly articulated plan alone does not guarantee success. It must be carried out by an efficient and effective marketing, advocacy, and careful management. Modern business management encompasses planning, organizing, staffing, controlling, and directing an organization toward the achievement of its goals. It is this business mentality, introduced into the library environment in the last century, which ensures the effectiveness and efficiency of the modern library.  The modern library is not a bibliographic museum. It is an entrepreneurial organization that offers services and programs to the community. Because of this important role, the library can no longer follow a passive management model. It must be run by people who combine the tools of the library profession with those of business management. It must sell itself the way a business sells its products. In order to do this, the library must consider its patrons, just as a business considers its customers. The library accomplishes this through marketing and advocacy, or the deliberate process of voicing the concerns, ideas and needs of targeted customers. 
Information retrieval systems have one simple and straight forward purpose: to provide access to collected records. The Sumerian library kept a key to their cuneiform tablets so that locating a particular tax document was possible. Before the automation era, access to information in libraries was through manually-typed card catalogs. Today, information retrieval systems such as Online Public Access Catalogs and online databases store enormous records organized by fields, searchable by keywords, subjects, assigned vocabularies, and selected index terms.  Each information system, old and new, is designed by experts for a specific user group, requiring precise search methods, and can be extremely easy or difficult to use. To better serve library users’ information needs, librarians evaluate and teach information literacy on a daily basis. Understanding the design, structure and query methods of information retrieval systems is an essential professional skill all librarians should have in order to effectively retrieve relevant data for the information needs of the customers. 

Library profession has a complex relationship with Information Technology (IT) profession. Large portion of library operation in modern era depends on technology. Librarians constantly need support from IT staff. Unfortunately, there is a genuine communication problem between these two professions. ITs think librarians know not much about technology, and librarians believe IT staffs are ignorant in information. The truth is that we, librarians, have been acquainted with technology for decades. In the beginning, Library automation system incorporates what used to be independent and separate functions of Circulation, Reference, Technical Processing, and Administration into one integrated scheme. Automation system of library simplifies and expands library services significantly. Then, Internet revolutionizes library services in unprecedented way. Reference particularly forever changes her service tradition. Instant gratification from Google, Yahoo, and wiki steal great amount of conventional reference inquires by phone or in person. Finally, digitization, Web 2.0 theories and application models for professionals continue the third information technology revolution. Information technology and the way telecommunication dictates the transmission of information are dynamically evolving; library services and programs will be deeply connecting and depending on the future development of IT. Librarianship inevitably too will have to include technology as part of professional competencies. 

Every academic discipline produces a high volume of literature each year. Yet, quantity does not always translate to quality, and often, the published articles do not adhere to a high standard of research. In theory, research is prepared for a reason – to solve a problem, to address an issue or to develop a proposal. Without the proper methodology behind it, research lacks reliable data and valid conclusions. Librarians constantly conduct systematic and critical reviews of published research. They also plan, execute, and apply their own research to implement and evaluate services and programs in their libraries. Thus, library professionals must have a strong foundation in research methodology. 

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

早熟與先知先覺

早熟與先知先覺

早熟不等於先知先覺,但似乎又有些關連。早熟可有生理與心理兩造;有些人生理早熟,有些人心理早熟。更有極少數人同時心生理都早熟。先知先覺泰半指心理上的敏感度早於常人。是以早熟和先知先覺仍然有些許重疊領域。因為先知先覺者有很多是心理智能早熟的人。

生理早熟指的是青春期發育較一般人早些有特徵。幼兒耆老不在此列。早産兒不是早熟,未老先衰更非早熟了!可是通常我們稱某某人比較早熟,並不是指生理發育提早,反而專指心理上而言。倘若一位青少年層男女,其思想上較同儕軰較成熟的早。他或者她在做人處事方面,己粗具有成人社會的基本慨念。比諸同年紀群,此人堪稱心理早熟。

青春期發育特微,生理上男女類似,僅男女之別益加分明嘍。大體上男長肌,女生脂。肌肉有力,凝脂軟嫩。男朋友喉結鬍鬚出籠,聲音也低了八度。女仕們豐胸突臀,聲音沒有大幅突變。初中時期,我們男女同校不同班,加上我是晚熟兼後知後覺,對少女的青春發育處於矇矓狀態,似懂非懂。但是同班男同學生理比較早熟的倒留下深刻印象。一群運動神經發達的,肌肉也相對比較突顯。推測是熟成的早。有幾位尤其花大心思,在有限的校服上大作文章。襯衫長短褲,船型帽子,領帶一令燙到勻稱平亮,如公雀䦕屏,吸引異性目光。我們晚熟乖乖靜靜一旁膛眼觀秀。生澀無助又無知。

至於先知先覺或後知後覺,理應限制於思想理解力,非干生理發展。就事論事,成長過程原本是生理和心理並行的。年歲增長自然心智漸開。是以知覺領悟不能完全脫離生理發展。生理早熟的人也是合理可能是先知先覺的。生理早熟對一個人一生是正面影響多亦是負面影響大?不知道心理學和醫學上有沒有深入研究?

知覺發展往往有先天後天因素影響。意指腦筋通竅早,固然有天生英才因素,也有是後天環境逼出來的。如莫札特,愛因斯坦當然是天才。我也親眼看過單親友人的小孩在十多歲出頭已經能夠有條不紊地處理家庭事物,判斷交䄞應對,進而規劃人生目標。由此可見後天因素能驅動某些人察言觀色能力。常言苦其心智,勞其筋骨。足証能勝大任,得歷經磨難。從而吸取教訓,贏得寶貴的知識。最近讀 [曲中巨掔]洪昇傳。這位清雜劇 "長生殿"曲家十五歲時已是鄉里仰重的才子。詩文早成。他家學淵源,奠基幼萌。有天才,兼家教訓練,才能先知。一般養尊處優的公子公主如果父母縱寵,自己又沒頭沒腦,註定是晚成之器,更可能全不成器!

後知後覺屬於大眾人囗。 少數頂尖以及少數底層的人組成先知先覺和不知不覺稀有人種。其餘中間廣大民眾多隸屬後和後覺。我們這群人經由正常管道,取得知識技能,在一定年齡層經歷平凡正常生活。這正是芸芸眾生速描。前有許多古人,後有無盡來者。說好是平凡順暢,終老一生。説不好是慵慵碌碌,高不成,低不就。(你不一定屬於這一族。因為我是,所以假設)

話說回來,身為凡常,能後知後覺並不可恥。據我所知,二十世紀中成就傲人的英文小說家  Joseph Conrad, 原本是波蘭水手,二十幾歲自修英文。如今他的長篇小 說作品是英國文學系必修科目,充滿政治主題的故事情節如 黑暗之心,Heart of Darkness, 等都曾拍攝成好萊塢電影。絲毫不遜土生土長的傳統英國作家,可與勞倫斯,喬艾斯同起同坐。統計數字顯示美國大學生平均在畢業之前會轉換科系三次,足見即使進入大學,多數人在20歲左右並未能確定人生方向。甚至有些人拿到學士學位之後進入研究所時選擇了與大學全然無關的科系。後知後覺仍然有未來。



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