Saturday, September 10, 2016

Mayan language, 馬雅文字趣談

馬雅文字趣談
南美洲古馬雅文字系統,是一種無限制,無障礙,能夠用近似中國古象形文字表現口語的文字系統。也就是説,只要有人用聲音對話,馬雅文官便可以將語音會話書寫成文。理由很簡單。此一文字系統中包括有完整單字或者是單一音節的圖象。袛要將單母音或子音組合,就完成一個單字。

譬如說美洲豹,英文是 jaguar,馬雅 文念作 Bahlam. 文字可以寫成一個類似豹頭的形象,也可以寫成一個由三個音節符號組成的字眼。


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上圖左方第一個類似貓科動物頭部的圖文便是馬雅文中的豹子。而另外表示同樣動物的通用字眼則是由三個音符圖案組裝而成。兩個字同音同義,不同形象而已。


如果你熟悉現代韓文結構,便很容易了解如何判讀馬雅文。當然我如此分析,走的是濃縮簡化流程.事實上仍然有不少例外和異常結構。己知馬雅音符共約一百種, 卻有約二百種符號。一個單字中假設包括兩個音符,而其中一個音符有三種符號可以選用,書法家選擇那一個音符往往以美感為考量。儘量尋求富於感觀視覺動人心 的組合。一篇長文中如果有某些字重覆出現,更是故意會寫成不同樣貎。它們的文字,除了表達語言,記錄史實,也追求超越現實之上的美。


The word jaguar (bahlam), for example, could be written as a symbol which looks like a jaguar’s head, or as a cluster of three syllables: ba-la-m(a). In slylabic systems like Mayan the final vowel (in this case the “a”) is often silent.
There were over 600 logographs but, for reasons of style, the scribes often preferred to use syllabic writing. While the Mayan language had 100 phonetic syllables, there were as many as 200 symbols to represent these sounds. So, for most syllable sounds, there was a range of symbol choices. In an extraordinary mingling of language and art, the Maya scribes selected the glyphs that best fulfilled their aesthetic sense. The more frequently a word was used, the greater the variation seen in writing it, as the Maya didn’t like to repeat a spelling or design within the same block of text.